Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2018, Page: 44-54
Possible Mimics of Duffy Binding Protein-II for Plasmodium vivax Binding Endothelial Cells or Binding Plasmodium falciparum by Mimicking Epitope on Erythrocyte Binding Antigen-175 A
Jesus’ Christus, Research and Development Department, BioLogistics LLC, Ames Iowa, USA
Michael Arden Madson, Research and Development Department, BioLogistics LLC, Ames Iowa, USA
Received: Jul. 19, 2018;       Accepted: Aug. 15, 2018;       Published: Sep. 19, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.wjfst.20180202.14      View  364      Downloads  30
Abstract
Two molecules from the same source, Κ casein, are suggested as treatments to prevent infection by Plasmodium vivax, malaria virus, through the prevention of Duffy Binding Protein II (DBPII) monomers 1 and 2 from binding. By preventing DBPII monomer 1 and 2 binding there would be half the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) binding to the DBPII trimer. This may prevent infection by this virus. Here the essential, structural, characterization of two potential binding mimics of the DBPII monomer 2 to prevent its binding to DBPII monomer 1, are provided. Κ casein is treated with NaBH4 in 1 N NH4OH (pH 11.4) to produce the two molecules; N-acetamido deoxy neuraminyl (α 2->3’) N-acetamido deoxy neuraminyl (α 2->6’) galactosyl 4’ (di-hydrido) sulfo (β 1->3) N-acetamido deoxy galactosaminyl 6 (di-hydrido) sulfo di-(hydrido) di-phospho serinyl (di-hydrido) sulfo tyrosine dipeptide and N-acetamido deoxy neuraminyl (α 2->3’) N-acetamido deoxy neuraminyl (α 2->6’) 4’ (di-hydrido) sulfo galactosyl (β 1-> 3) 6 (d-hydrido) sulfo 1,5 anhydro N-acetamido deoxy galactosaminitol. Only the first of the two molecules presents a (di-hydrido) sulfo tyrosine, yet both have two (di-hydrido) sulfo groups. Still the dipeptide may mimic another sulfo tyrosine on the DBPII monomer 2, thought to be away from T266 (threonine 266) a significant distance, possibly Y363 of DBPII monomer 2. These molecules may also mimic the appropriate epitope on Erythrocyte Binding Antigen (EBA)-175 of Plasmodium falciparum to prevent infection by this virus.
Keywords
Carbohydrate Mimics, Malaria Infection, Κ Casein, Hydride Chemistry, Mass Spectrometry, HPAEC-PAD
To cite this article
Jesus’ Christus, Michael Arden Madson, Possible Mimics of Duffy Binding Protein-II for Plasmodium vivax Binding Endothelial Cells or Binding Plasmodium falciparum by Mimicking Epitope on Erythrocyte Binding Antigen-175 A, World Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2018, pp. 44-54. doi: 10.11648/j.wjfst.20180202.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Batchelor, J.; Zahm, J.; Tolia, N.; Dimerization of Plasmodium vivax DBP is induced upon receptor binding and drives recognition of DARC Nature Structural and Molecular Biology (2011) 18:908-914.
[2]
Batchelor, J.; Malpede, B.; Omatagge, N.; DeKover, G.; Henzler-Wildman, K.; Tolia, N. Red blood cell invasion of Plasmodium vivax structural basis for DBP engagement of DARC, PLoS Pathogens 10, 1.e1003869 (2014).
[3]
Orllandi, P.; Klotz, F.; Haynes, J.; A Malaria Invasion Receptor, the 175 kilodalton Erythrocyte Binding Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum Recognizes the Terminal Neu5Ac (α2-3) Gal- sequences of glycophorin A J. Cell Biology 116 (4) 901-909 (1992).
[4]
Ntumngia, F.; Thomson-Lugue, R.; Tomes, L.; Gunalan, K.; Carvalho, L.; Adams, J.; A novel erythrocyte binding protein of Plasmodium vivax suggests an alternative pathway into Duffy positive reticulocytes mbio.asm.org 1-5 American Society for Microbiology 7: (4) e01261-16 (2016 (b)).
[5]
Wanaguru, M.; Crosnier, C.; Johnson, S.; Rayner, J.; Wright, G. Biochemical Analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte-binding Antigen-175 (EBA175)-Glycophorin-A Interaction IMPLICATIONS FOR VACCINE DESIGN J. Biol. Chem. 288 32016-32117 (2013).
[6]
Grodecka, M.; Czerwiński, M,; Duk, M.; Lisowska, E.; Waśniowska, K; Analysis of recombinant Duffy protein-linked N-glycans using lectins and glycosidases Acta Biochimica Polonica 57 (1) 49–53 (2010).
[7]
Saito, T.; Itoh, T.; Variations and Distributions of O-Glycosidically Linked Sugar Chains in Bovine K-Casein J. Dairy Sci. 75:1768-1774 (1992).
[8]
Madson, M.; Rao S.; Avdalovich, N.; Pohl, C.; A simple method for the isolation of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins poster Glycobiology San Diego CA, USA (2005).
[9]
Madson, M. Method of isolating and analyzing oligosaccharides from glycoproteins patent US 9, 625, 468 B1 (April 18th 2017).
[10]
Madson, M. Mass Spectrometry; Techniques for Structural Characterization of Glycans, Elsevier, May 30th New York USA (2016).
[11]
Madson, M. Method of discerning substitution of carbohydrate esters patent US 9, 726, 761 B2 (August 8th 2017).
[12]
Madson M.; Manufacturing of MeOH, formaldehyde, formic acid and ammonium pentaborate tetrahydrate from CO2 patent US 8, 685, 355 B2 (2014).
[13]
Ntumngia, F.; Thomson-Luque, R.; Pires, C.; Adams, J.; The role of the human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines in malaria susceptibility: current opinion and future treatment prospects J. of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research 9: 1-11 (2016 (a)).
[14]
Madson, M.; System and method for non-reductive β-elimination US 9, 488, 653 B2 patent (November 8th 2016).
[15]
Deslongchamps, P.; Stereoelectronic control in the cleavage of tetrahedral intermediates in the hydrolysis of esters and amides Tetrahedron 31 (20) 2463-2490 (1975).
[16]
Deslongchamps, P.; Rowan, D.; Pothier, N.; G.; Saunders, J.; 1, 7-Dioxaspiro [5.5] undecanes. An excellent system for the study of stereoelectronic effects (anomeric and exo-anomeric effects) in acetals Canadian Journal of Chemistry 59 (7) 1105-1121 (1981).
[17]
Choe, H.; Moore, M.; Owens, C.; Wright, P.; Vasilieva, N.; Li, W; Singh, A.; Shakri, R.; Chitris, C.; Farzan, M.; Sulfated tyrosine mediate association of chemokines and Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein with the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC) Molecular Microbiology 55: 1413-1422 (2005).
Browse journals by subject